Sodium-ion batteries are coming

Na-ion battery cell by NAIMA project
Na-ion battery cell by NAIMA project

Sodium-ion batteries (NIBs) are coming with potential to revolutionize grid energy storage and indirectly help EVs in a big way. Let’s see how!


Recently CATL announced that it’ll begin to produce NIBs in July. However, the giant Chinese battery cell maker didn’t tell us much about this battery technology, only that NIBs will be temporarily more expensive than lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) because they are a new concept.

Nonetheless, in the long run – with efficient mass production – NIBs will be considerably cheaper (around 30 % less) than LIBs. The main advantage of sodium-ion batteries is their use of abundant, cheap and benign materials.


The material costs are $30/kg for NMC, and $10/kg for our sodium salt, so the cost per kW/h for NMC in the lithium cell is around $48/kWh, and for our material in the sodium cell is $35/kWh.

โ€œWith further development of a better anode having lower operating potential in the future, the cost should be decreased by $20/kWh, with an increase in full cell energy density. We are expecting the wholesale price or cost for mass production of our cathode material to be even cheaper than $10/kg, as it is originated from abundant biomass; for example, corn liquor.

Min Ah Lee, a postdoctoral research fellow at Stanford University


NIBs have the potential of reaching a cost per kWh of around 40 euros, while the cheapest LIBs (LiFePO4) are unlikely to get much lower than 60 euros per kWh.


As it already happens with LIBs, NIBs can also be optimized for energy density, power density, cost, safety or durability (life cycle).


The European NAIMA project was conceived to develop and test two configurations of enhanced Na-ion cells to satisfy the main ESS (Energy Storage System) applications. One optimized for power density and cycle life (industrial applications), other for energy density and cost (domestic applications).


1. High power and fast charge design concept (suitable for industrial applications)

  • 120 Wh/kg
  • 250 Wh/L
  • 5.000 W/kg
  • 41 C-rate
  • 8.000 cycles
  • >50 % recycling rate
  • 0,05 โ‚ฌ/kWh/cycle
  • ++Safety


2. Low cost and energy design concept (suitable for domestic applications)

  • 200 Wh/kg
  • 420 Wh/L
  • 500 W/kg
  • 2,5 C-rate
  • 6.000 cycles
  • 50 % recycling rate
  • 0,04 โ‚ฌ/kWh/cycle
  • ++Safety


The first Na-ion battery cell design is the most promising, it show us how power dense Na-ion battery cells can be, enabling extremely high C-rates (41 C), even better than LTOย cells.


It’s obvious that high power density and great cycle life combined with low cost make safe NIBs perfect for ESSs, where energy density is not that important.


But how does it help EVs? With NIBs, we can not only store more renewable energy in general, but they also enable to build powerful green charging stations for EVs. In the future, all EV charging stations will have batteries, to function as buffers for peaks in production or demand of electricity from the grid.

Moreover, if grid energy storage uses NIBs instead of LIBs, it will leave more lithium available to make LIBs for EVs, where energy density is really important.


As for the second Na-ion battery cell design, with its higher energy density it could be used to build smaller ESS for domestic usage where space is limited. Moreover, since NIBs are extremely safe, CTP (cell-to-pack) technology could be used to make EV batteries with a decent energy density of around 180 Wh/kg at the pack level.


Anyway, while CTP allows to build NIBs energy dense enough for EVs, it’s in grid energy storage where NIBs shine and make sense the most, with potential to revolutionize the industry.


I look forward to see the specs of NIBs made by CATL. Will they be optimized for power or energy density? Who will be the next company to announce the production of Na-ion battery cells? BYD? Guoxuan?



More info:

Pedro Lima

My interest in electric transportation is mostly political. Iโ€™m tired of coups and wars for oil. My expectation is that the adoption of electric transportation will be a factor for peace and democracy all over the world.

13 Responses

  1. Frederico Matias says:

    Great news once technology is finalized/optimized.

    I really want to put more solar (currently only 1,5kw) but giving a big part to the utility is not an option…

  2. Trevor says:

    With that kind of C-rates they seem perfect for 12-48V batteries in cars.

  3. Famlin says:

    If this can become cheap and can be utilized for power storage, that will be excellent and we can cut down the peaker plants and instead use the battery to store excessive power during night time that can be used during day time peak load. Let see what is the cost of this battery.

    4th member of the family after

    1. Lead
    2. Nickel
    3. Lithium
  4. Derek says:

    What about this solid-state sodium battery?

    Cell cost at mass manufacturing of c.$50/kWh

    • Famlin says:

      Looks very nice on website, however it should come to the market at the right volume & price. Lets see, the dream of lithium battery became true. I hope the sodium battery also comes to market.

  5. antrik says:

    Stationary storage doesn’t generally need a lot of power… While there are some specific grid applications that do, these are pretty miniscule in the grand scheme of things: with the amount of battery storage needed for energy, any power needs are covered many times over as a side effect.

    Also, 41C discharge rate is not that impressive… Speciality LFP cells used in drag racing boast 100C or even 200C. While they don’t quite reach these numbers in practice, they seem to be close enough… (Admittedly, these probably have somewhat less than 120 Wh/kg.)

    The high-energy variant with 200 Wh/kg seems way more exciting. If they can indeed make them cheaper than lithium cells, that would indeed be huge for affordable EVs and stationary storage…

    • Pedro Lima says:

      Thanks to CTP is quite possible that NIBs will also be used as EV batteries. Let’s see if BYD and Guoxuan have something to show us in the coming months.

  6. Maximilian Holland says:

    Great to see Sodium batteries finally coming towards commercialization. Diversity of battery chemistries will keep the market healthy.

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