Cobalt-free LFP battery cells from Guoxuan to reach 260 Wh/kg by 2022

Volkswagen is the biggest shareholder of the Chinese battery cell maker Guoxuan
Volkswagen is the biggest shareholder of the Chinese battery cell maker Guoxuan

Only behind CATL and BYD, Guoxuan High-Tech Power Energy is China’s third biggest battery cell maker with an annual production capacity expected to reach 28 GWh already this year – enough for more than half-million (560.000) battery packs with 50 kWh each.

Recently the giant German automaker Volkswagen acquired 26 % of Guoxuan’s parent company Gotion that is now preparing for a fast growth. Not only in production capacity, but also in technological advancements.


Regarding production capacity, Guoxuan plans to reach an output of 80 GWh by 2023 and 100 GWh by 2025.

As for energy density goals, according to its vice president Huang Zhangxi, Guoxuan plans to reach 260 Wh/kg with cobalt-free LFP cells and 350 Wh/kg with NCM cells by 2022.


Guoxuan will also strive to improve the energy storage capacity of its batteries, raising the energy density of its lithium iron phosphate batteries to 260 watt-hours per kilogram and that of its MnNiCo ternary batteries to 350 Wh/kg by 2022.



Anyway, currently Guoxuan’s most energy dense LFP battery cells have an energy density around 190 Wh/kg. During this year, Guoxuan expects to reach 210 Wh/kg, but mass production will probably only begin in 2021.

Achieving 260 Wh/kg by 2022 would be extremely impressive for cobalt-free LFP (LiFePO4) battery cells, I suspect that those will be LFMP (high-voltage version of LFP). Considering a GCTPR (gravimetric cell-to-pack ratio) of 85 % that is common in CTP (cell-to-pack) batteries, it would possible to achieve 221 Wh/kg at the battery pack level with those extremely safe, durable and cheap cells.

As for the NCM battery cells that are expected to reach 350 Wh/kg, those are likely to be the NCMA variant, which is the next logical step in NCM/NCA advancements. However, since this kind of cells require a lot more safety equipment when compared to inherently safe LFP/LFMP cells, the GCTPR is always lower. Therefore, we can expect around 250 Wh/kg at the battery pack level with NCMA battery cells.

At the battery pack level, the energy density differences between LFMP and NCMA batteries will be minimal, only justified for more expensive electric cars that require that extra range, no matter the cost. For high-volume production electric cars, cobalt-free LFMP or LNMO batteries will be the better choices.


I’m curious to know if Volkswagen and Guoxuan plan to build cobalt-free batteries in Europe and North America anytime soon.



More info:

Pedro Lima

My interest in electric transportation is mostly political. Iโ€™m tired of coups and wars for oil. My expectation is that the adoption of electric transportation will be a factor for peace and democracy all over the world.

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7 months ago

Will they be the batteries used in the 45kwh version of the ID3. They should have space for them in the battery enclosure so they’d be getting a double saving of fewer cells and fewer kwh allowing them to price the ID3 low while still being profitable.
It may be the reason why they are slow to release the 45kwh version of the ID3 as the battery pack can’t be tested until the battery supplier supplies the batteries.

7 months ago

“annual production capacity expected to reach 28 GWh already this year” – Impressive achievement
260 Wh / kg seems to be a lofty goal.
Are the CATL LFP battery in Tesla MIC a prismatic 1.

This year the LFP seems to be making many gains.

7 months ago

What about volumetric figures? If we assume ID3 48kWh battery has similar density as Renault Zoe (somewhere around 171Wh/kg), that would be roughly 60kg reduction in weight. Would they be able to put in a bigger battery or just use that reduction to save on total weight (and with it get a slighlty better range)?

Maximilian Holland
7 months ago

Yes, this is great news. LFP for the win!

7 months ago

Great stuff Pedro, thanks. I get very impatient for the EV revolution to really take off, but if what you’re saying is correct, it really looks like we need to wait for the new battery factories for more volume and for these better LFP, LFMP, and LMNO batteries to really get into production before it does. So hopefully 2022?

I guess for Tesla, and the people who can afford them and like the Tesla style, it already has, but for everyone else it seems we’re not quite there yet.

7 months ago

Dear Pedro, this is great news!. Maybe you want to change the title or add a remark because the Company renamed Gotion High-tech Co., Ltd. in April 2020 from the former Guoxuan High-tech Co., Ltd.?

7 months ago
Reply to  Pedro Lima

The structure of Gotion / Guoxan is not clear to me, as is almost always the case with Chinese conglomerats. However, there is no Guoxan listed stock in China, but Gotion is.

7 months ago
Reply to  Pedro Lima

BTW, the picture you used also reads “Volkswagen Group China Strategic Investment into Gotion High-Tech signing ceremony”

Leo B
7 months ago
Reply to  Pedro Lima

Guoxuan High Tech business page:

Volkswagen is not listed (yet) as shareholder.

On this page the major shareholders are:
Nanjing Guoxuan Holding Group (~15%) and a person named Li Zhen (~22%). Li Zhen is also the controlling shareholder of Nanjing Guoxuan:
Li Zhen is the founder of Guoxuan.

About Guoxuan / Gotion: this is probably just the difference between literal and prefered romanization. For example:
Chinese: ๅ‰ๅˆฉ
Translation: Lucky
Literal romanization: Jili
Prefered romanization: Geely

Josef ล oltes
7 months ago

Hi, this is great news for EVs, but terrible news for aviation. I am afraid there will be canibalisation of future research. If LFMP really gets to 260 Whs in 2022, it will be so good and cheap, it will slow down another research of much more energy denser chemistries… And aviation needs at least 400 Wh/kg to start even think about making commercial plane. You can make do with 250 Wh/kg on small UL planes, but you are already pushing it over the limit with 4 seaters and venture into realm of impossible with 10 or more people on board.